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Conjoined twins, also known as Siamese twins, is a rare condition where genetically identical monoamniotic and monochorionic twins fuse during fertilization in the uterus (Mian et al., 2017). This rare condition occurs in 1 out of 50,000-100,000 live births, with a range of 40-60% being stillborn, 35% surviving for 24 hours, and an overall survival rate of 18% (Kapoor et al., 2012). Conjoined twins are classified based on physical attachment after birth (Mian et al., 2017).
The first ever successful conjoined twin separation was in 1953 with pygopagus twins (Carlson et al., 2018). Since then, conjoined twin separation has become more common, with a survival rate of 64% among 167 cases (Carlson et al., 2018). The classifications with the highest mortality are seen in thoracopagus and craniopagus twins with around 51% mortality, while pygopagus and ischiopagus have the lowest mortality rate of around 23% and 19% (Carlson et al., 2018).
Amblyopia, also known as lazy eye, is a form of visual impairment where there is a decrease in vision resulting from abnormal visual development in infancy to early childhood (Blair et al., 2020). Amblyopia ranges from mild vision loss (20/25) to legal blindness (20/200 and worse); the brain focuses on one eye more than the other and hence leads to its blindness unless the child or young adult receives proper treatment (Chen & Cotter, 2016). Amblyopia may be extremely dangerous since it involves eye symptoms that are hard to detect during infancy (Holmes & Clarke, 2006).