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Angelman Syndrome

Author: Christine Ma Editor: Leah Farquharson   Overview Angelman Syndrome (AS) is a rare neurological disorder that affects 1 in every 12,000 to 20,000 live births (Madaan & Mendez, 2021).

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Rett Syndrome

Author: Shayan Mackie Editor: Leah Farquharson Overview Rett syndrome (RTT) is a rare (1:10,000) genetic neurological disorder (Cianfaglione et al., 2015). As a developmental disorder affecting the brain, RTT has

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Ultrasound image of conjoined twins attached at the thorax.
Professional Content

Conjoined Twins

Conjoined twins, also known as Siamese twins, is a rare condition where genetically identical monoamniotic and monochorionic twins fuse during fertilization in the uterus (Mian et al., 2017). This rare condition occurs in 1 out of 50,000-100,000 live births, with a range of 40-60% being stillborn, 35% surviving for 24 hours, and an overall survival rate of 18% (Kapoor et al., 2012). Conjoined twins are classified based on physical attachment after birth (Mian et al., 2017). 

The first ever successful conjoined twin separation was in 1953 with pygopagus twins (Carlson et al., 2018). Since then, conjoined twin separation has become more common, with a survival rate of 64% among 167 cases (Carlson et al., 2018). The classifications with the highest mortality are seen in thoracopagus and craniopagus twins with around 51% mortality, while pygopagus and ischiopagus have the lowest mortality rate of around 23% and 19% (Carlson et al., 2018).

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